The researcher analysed different travel trims for trips within the cities they studied (San Francisco illustrated).
The graphs in 'b' show the number of vehicle trips and observed travel time benefits for different degrees of social behaviour while 'c' shows the decrease in time lost to congestion People ranked as having 'terrible' commutes spend enough money on tickets over a lifetime to buy themselves a palatial house in Bali and waste more two years of their lives cooped up in a car of train carriage, for example.
The watchdog totally blocked a quarter of the cancer drugs made available since 2008 and heavily restricted others - despite Government promises to make more treatments available.
Professor Karol Sikora, medical director of Cancer Partners UK, a private provider of cancer services which works with the NHS, said thousands of patients were losing out and were likely to die earlier.
They found when drivers made selfish, uncoordinated choices, they made congestion worse (stock picture).
They say making a small number of journeys longer could cut congestion considerably They found that when drivers make uncoordinated and uninformed travel choices that could be considered selfish – like turning onto a road as a shortcut before re-joining a main carriageway, this leads to the most amount of congestion.
NICE does not ban the use of all the new drugs completely.
Instead, it has put very tight restrictions on how they can be used meaning far fewer patients are given access.
The researchers said: 'Although in both scenarios the collective benefits for the whole city can be significant - 15 to 30% decrease - the observed time benefits the average individual receives are marginal, ranging from 1 to 3 min.