The Muslims count the Prophet’s departure from Mecca, or the Hegira, as their beginning at AD 662.
The Mayan calendar used 3114 BC as their reference.
Relative dating stems from the idea that something is younger or older relative to something else.
In a stratigraphical context objects closer to the surface are more recent in time relative to items deeper in the ground.
The numbers refer to the atomic weight, so Carbon-12 has 6 protons and 6 neutrons, Carbon-13 has 6 protons and 7 neutrons, and Carbon-14 has 6 protons and 8 neutrons.
The extra neutrons in Carbon-14’s case make it radioactive (thus the term, radiocarbon).
When it comes to dating archaeological samples, several timescale problems arise.
There are two techniques for dating in archaeological sites: relative and absolute dating.Historical documents and calendars can be used to find such absolute dates; however, when working in a site without such documents, it is hard for absolute dates to be determined.